An ecosystem services approach to productive land management in a farm-scale catchment
A 155 ha mixed arable, pasture and woodland catchment in Leicestershire is used as a demonstration of ecosystem services and the interactions between them. Cultivation for crop production reduces water quality, and habitat creation for bird conservation results in food production foregone. Such trade-offs can be reduced by adopting non-crop habitats that have multiple objectives, such as encouraging pollinators and crop pest predators and providing opportunities for recreation. Soil management provides an example of interaction between ecosystem services and of management that can be adopted within the 'productive' area. Rather than choosing between land sparing and sharing, more targeted multi-objective management of farmland is likely to optimise the wide range of ecosystem services associated with it.