Resources and reproductive performance in Mute Swans Cygnus olor.

Author Scott, D.K. & Birkhead, M.E.
Citation Scott, D.K. & Birkhead, M.E. (1983). Resources and reproductive performance in Mute Swans Cygnus olor. Journal of Zoology, London, 200: 539-547.

Abstract

Around Oxford, breeding pairs of mute swans maintained territories throughout most of the year and these territories varied considerably in potential food availability in the form of aquatic vegetation, bread supplied by the public and pasture for grazing. On territories with abundant aquatic vegetation females laid earlier larger clutches than on those with little aquatic vegetation. Clutches were also larger on territories with a high potential bread supply. In addition, adult females were heavier on territories with a high diversity of aquatic vegetation. However, contrary to expectation, there were no direct relationships between territory quality measures and other aspects of reproductive performance including number of young fledged, egg volume, cygnet weight or size, or adult male weight. Instead, the number of young fledged was related to clutch size; egg volume was related to laying date; and cygnet weight was related to age and egg volume. Adult male weight was positively related to age.

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