Harvesting red grouse in the North of England.
Driven red grouse (Lagopus l. scoticus) flew over the hunters in packs of up to 100 birds. Relatively few grouse were shot from large packs due to the effects of dilution and not confusion. Although it was not the intention of the hunters, they selectively shot old birds, particularly cocks. The proportion of grouse shot at low and medium densities was lower than a maximum-yield relationship derived from a simulation model. There was limited evidence that losses from harvesting were compensated for, and a possible mechanism for this is discussed.